EdX.org ChinaX part 6.
How do the incorporation of the inner Asian frontier, the final corporation
of this frontier into Qing shape the course of modern Chinese history?
How is it seen?
How is it reflected in politics and society in China today?
These territories, along with Tibet, which
also comes, as I mentioned earlier, under more and more direct authority
of the Manchu Emperor through the course of the 18th century.
These territories comprise a pretty significant part
of modern Chinese territory, the lands of the People’s Republic of China.
And they set the mold.
The Qing shape sets the mold then for what
will become the shape of the modern Chinese nation.
These territories also represent a continuing problem
of governance for the PRC.
And so the relevance of Manchu empire to modern China, I think,
is hard to exaggerate.
Inheritance of these territories has been very effectively naturalized
by the leaders of China under the Republic of China,
as well as under the People’s Republic of China.
And so it’s easy, in a way, for us to forget that this was the result
of an imperial expansion, a project of imperial expansion that took place
in the late 1600’s and then in the 1700’s.
But if it hadn’t been for this project of imperial expansion,
we could be pretty sure that China today would be half the size that it is now.
An awareness of the Qing imperial enterprise during the High Qing
reminds us that while much is made of the continuity of China
as the last of the antique empires to survive into the modern era,
this is something of a misunderstanding.
That is to say, China today is the successor state,
we can say of “imperial China,” but more specifically,
it is the successor state of the Qing empire
which was a vast, hybrid, polyethnic, multinational state that
brought peoples from very different backgrounds,
with different religious traditions, different languages together
in a kind of gunpowder empire of the type that is quite comparable to say,
the Ottoman Empire, the Mughal empire, the Romanov empire.
It represented the synthesis of centuries
of interaction between China and inner Asia.
It wasn’t just another Chinese empire.
“I think [America First is] very short sighted,” Kasich said of the desire to “withdraw, take care of ourselves.”
The report explains that democracies around the globe were under assault, but by six separate measures — “politicizing independent institutions, spreading disinformation, amassing executive power, quashing dissent, delegitimizing communities, and corrupting elections”
Most important are the report’s recommendations. Congress should do its part. There is a role for the press, for the public and even the private sector to speak out and defend the rule of law and independent sources of information.
Has academic computer science been useful for practicing software engineers? I will show that it has, but with about 40 years of delay.
Declarative arithmetic expressions, such as SQRT(2.0*X)/Y, were first realized in Fortran, invented in 1953… … So, we may conclude that in roughly 40 years, the concept has become widely adopted.
The “map/reduce” concept was pioneered in the LISP language around 1960… … Google famously used map/reduce at scale in early 2000s.
The paradigm of object-oriented programming began with the Simula language in 1967… … By mid-2000s, C++, Java and OOP became established industry practices.
Communicating sequential processes was an obscure theory developed in 1978 by Tony Hoare… …The first industry-strength implementation of this theory had to wait until 2009 when Google created the Go language. The adoption of Go outside Google started gaining momentum around 2013-2015.
Lambda-functions (or “anonymous functions“) were first clearly described in the 1967 lectures by Christopher Strachey and later implemented in a number of experimental programming languages… …In 2009, lambda-functions were added to Delphi and PHP, in 2011 to C++, in 2012 to Ada, and in 2014 to Java.
‘S’ = The directory’s setgid bit is set, but the execute bit isn’t set.
‘s’ = The directory’s setgid bit is set, and the execute bit is set.
SetGID = When another user creates a file or directory under such a setgid directory, the new file or directory will have its group set as the group of the directory’s owner, instead of the group of the user who creates it.
To remove the setGID bit:
chmod g-s eclipse/
Taken from man chmod:
You can set or clear the bits with symbolic modes like u+s and g-s, and you can set (but not clear) the bits with a numeric mode.
Yep, that’s right. The 64 bit extensions to the x86 architecture were invented and first implemented by AMD. Intel were laggards to the 64 bit party because they were hoping to transition away from x86 architecture and move us towards IA64. IA64 already existed in the form of the Itanium and Intel was hoping to transition towards that. Despite being a far better and more efficient architecture, lacking the inherent design flaws of x86, it suffered through lack of compatibility and it never took off except in the commercial space. AMD effectively forced Intel’s hand by introducing the Sledgehammer, which was effectively a 64bit chip based on the x86 architecture. Hence the name AMD64.