Inner Asian Empire and the Unity of China

EdX.org ChinaX part 6.

How do the incorporation of the inner Asian frontier, the final corporation
of this frontier into Qing shape the course of modern Chinese history?
How is it seen?
How is it reflected in politics and society in China today?
These territories, along with Tibet, which
also comes, as I mentioned earlier, under more and more direct authority
of the Manchu Emperor through the course of the 18th century.
These territories comprise a pretty significant part
of modern Chinese territory, the lands of the People’s Republic of China.
And they set the mold.
The Qing shape sets the mold then for what
will become the shape of the modern Chinese nation.
These territories also represent a continuing problem
of governance for the PRC.
And so the relevance of Manchu empire to modern China, I think,
is hard to exaggerate.
Inheritance of these territories has been very effectively naturalized
by the leaders of China under the Republic of China,
as well as under the People’s Republic of China.
And so it’s easy, in a way, for us to forget that this was the result
of an imperial expansion, a project of imperial expansion that took place
in the late 1600’s and then in the 1700’s.
But if it hadn’t been for this project of imperial expansion,
we could be pretty sure that China today would be half the size that it is now.
An awareness of the Qing imperial enterprise during the High Qing
reminds us that while much is made of the continuity of China
as the last of the antique empires to survive into the modern era,
this is something of a misunderstanding.
That is to say, China today is the successor state,
we can say of “imperial China,” but more specifically,
it is the successor state of the Qing empire
which was a vast, hybrid, polyethnic, multinational state that
brought peoples from very different backgrounds,
with different religious traditions, different languages together
in a kind of gunpowder empire of the type that is quite comparable to say,
the Ottoman Empire, the Mughal empire, the Romanov empire.
It represented the synthesis of centuries
of interaction between China and inner Asia.
It wasn’t just another Chinese empire.

The Complete Harvard Classics By Volume – Free PDF Downloads

Mirrored from https://www.myharvardclassics.com/categories/20120212

Volume 1 – Benjamin Franklin, John Woolman, William Penn
Volume 2 – Plato, Epictetus, Marcus Aurelius
Volume 3 – Bacon, Milton’s Prose, Thomas Browne
Volume 4 – Milton, Complete Poems in English
Volume 5 – Emerson, Essays and English Traits
Volume 6 – Robert Burns, Poems and Songs
Volume 7 – The Confessions of St. Augustine, The Imitation of Christ
Volume 8 – Nine Greek Dramas
Volume 9 – Letters and Treatises of Cicero and Pliny
Volume 10 – Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations
Volume 11 – Charles Darwin, Origin of the Species
Volume 12 – Plutarch’s Lives
Volume 13 – Virgil, Aeneid
Volume 14 – Cervantes, Don Quixote, Part I
Volume 15 – Pilgrim’s Progress, Donne and Herbert, Walton
Volume 16 – The Thousand and One Nights
Volume 17 – Folk-Lore and Fable: Aesop, Grimm, Andersen
Volume 18 – Modern English Drama
Volume 19 – Faust, Egmont, etc., Goethe, Doctor Faustus, Marlowe
Volume 20 – Dante, The Divine Comedy
Volume 21 – Manzoni, I Promessi Sposi
Volume 22 – Homer, The Odyssey
Volume 23 – Dana, Two Years Before the Mast
Volume 24 – Burke, On the Sublime, French Revolution, etc.
Volume 25 – J. S. Mill and Thomas Carlyle
Volume 26 – Continental Drama
Volume 27 – English Essays, Sidney to Macaulay
Volume 28 – Essays, English and American
Volume 29 – Charles Darwin, Voyage of the Beagle
Volume 30 – Scientific Papers: Faraday, Helmholtz, Kelvin, Newcomb, etc.
Volume 31 – Cellini, Autobiography
Volume 32 – Montaigne, Sainte-Beuve, Renan, etc.
Volume 33 – Voyages and Travel
Volume 34 – Descartes, Voltaire, Rousseau, Hobbes
Volume 35 – Froissart, Malory, Holinshed
Volume 36 – Machiavelli, More, Luther
Volume 37 – Locke, Berkeley, Hume
Volume 38 – Scientific Papers: Harvey, Jenner, Lister, Pasteur
Volume 39 – Famous Prefaces
Volume 40 – English Poetry I
Volume 41 – English Poetry II
Volume 42 – English Poetry III
Volume 43 – American Historical Documents
Volume 44 – Sacred Writings I
Volume 45 – Sacred Writings II
Volume 46 – Elizabethan Drama I
Volume 47 – Elizabethan Drama II
Volume 48 – Blaise Pascal, Thoughts and Minor Works
Volume 49 – Epic and Saga
Volume 50 – INTRODUCTION, READER’S GUIDE, INDEXES
Volume 51 – Lectures

A bipartisan agreement: Trump is bad for democracy

https://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/right-turn/wp/2018/01/18/a-bipartisan-agreement-trump-is-bad-for-democracy/?utm_term=.8240512a2c3f

“I think [America First is] very short sighted,” Kasich said of the desire to “withdraw, take care of ourselves.”

The report explains that democracies around the globe were under assault, but by six separate measures — “politicizing independent institutions, spreading disinformation, amassing executive power, quashing dissent, delegitimizing communities, and corrupting elections”

Most important are the report’s recommendations. Congress should do its part. There is a role for the press, for the public and even the private sector to speak out and defend the rule of law and independent sources of information.

The Makings of a Leader

Just Wow!

  1. How, then, does he establish himself as a leader of his family?
  2. Well, it is not accepted right away that he will be the leader of his family.
  3. To be a leader involves struggle.
  4. You win through struggle, through vanquishing others.
  5. It’s not as if by being the oldest son of Hoelun
  6. he has the right to become the leader of his family.
  7. There’s a story that’s told of one of his half brothers
  8. who is so much stronger than him that when they went out fishing,
  9. his brother would take away the fish.
  10. When they went out to shoot birds, the half brother would take away the bird.
  11. And Temujin went to complain to his mother, and his mother ignored him.
  12. And so Temujin arranged with his four brothers
  13. to sneak up behind the half brother and to shoot him dead.
  14. At that point, he became the leader of his family.

The 40-year gap, or What has academic computer science ever done for us programmers

https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/40-year-gap-what-has-academic-computer-science-ever-done-winitzki/

Has academic computer science been useful for practicing software engineers? I will show that it has, but with about 40 years of delay.

Declarative arithmetic expressions, such as SQRT(2.0*X)/Y, were first realized in Fortran, invented in 1953…  … So, we may conclude that in roughly 40 years, the concept has become widely adopted.

The “map/reduce” concept was pioneered in the LISP language around 1960… … Google famously used map/reduce at scale in early 2000s.

The paradigm of object-oriented programming began with the Simula language in 1967… … By mid-2000s, C++, Java and OOP became established industry practices.

Communicating sequential processes was an obscure theory developed in 1978 by Tony Hoare… …The first industry-strength implementation of this theory had to wait until 2009 when Google created the Go language. The adoption of Go outside Google started gaining momentum around 2013-2015.

Lambda-functions (or “anonymous functions“) were first clearly described in the 1967 lectures by Christopher Strachey and later implemented in a number of experimental programming languages… …In 2009, lambda-functions were added to Delphi and PHP, in 2011 to C++, in 2012 to Ada, and in 2014 to Java.

 

Compiling fluxbox under Ubuntu

Download fluxbox source code from its official website.
http://fluxbox.org/download/

sudo apt-get install build-essential texinfo libacl1-dev autoconf automake xorg-dev libx11-dev libimlib2-dev libxinerama-dev libxrender-dev libxft-dev libxpm-dev
./configure --prefix=/usr --enable-nls --enable-imlib2 --enable-xinerama
make
sudo make install

Use you’re start up file. Type nano ~/.fluxbox/startup (if it does not exist, create it) and put this in there

Continue reading “Compiling fluxbox under Ubuntu”

Neglected big problems

Relearn Every Generation – We must each relearn many basic life lessons during our individual lifetimes, lessons that millions or billions of others already learned in their previous lifetimes, or that millions or billions of others are currently learning in parallel with us. There seem huge potential gains from finding better ways to learn from our ancestors and colleagues.

Changing World – Early in life we read the world around us and choose life plans and paths matched to that world. During our life the world around us changes, and we make some adaptations to that, but they seem insufficient. For example, we often seek to achieve in ways that were awarded with high status when we were young, to find that our achievements are much less valued by the new world.

Poor Matching – We match people as friends, lovers, spouses, and workers. Our distant ancestors only had a few available options for matches, and we inherited many intuitive mechanisms appropriate for that situation. But we now have a vast world with far more matches possible, and it seems like we don’t use that larger scope very well. We still rely heavily on inherited informal mechanisms. I see so many lonely and otherwise mismatched people.

Varied Commitment – We must each choose how much to commit to our careers, friends, lovers, neighborhoods, brands, etc. We do commit somewhat, but we also switch on occasion. But it isn’t remotely clear that we do this well. We must each match our commitment to the commitment choices of folks around us, and we often lack ways to commit to avoid temptations.

What does directory permission ‘S’ mean?

‘S’ = The directory’s setgid bit is set, but the execute bit isn’t set.

‘s’ = The directory’s setgid bit is set, and the execute bit is set.

SetGID = When another user creates a file or directory under such a setgid directory, the new file or directory will have its group set as the group of the directory’s owner, instead of the group of the user who creates it.

To remove the setGID bit:

chmod g-s eclipse/

Taken from man chmod:

You can set or clear the bits with symbolic modes like u+s and g-s, and you can set (but not clear) the bits with a numeric mode.

Please help me to understand these tun0 addresses

Hardware network links can be either point to point or point to multipoint. ppp links are point to point, ethernet is point to multipoint. tun can act as either, in your case it is acting as a point to point link. a point to multipoint interface has four addresses associated with it, specifically ip address (the address of the interface), network address, broadcast address, and netmask. A point to point link has two addresses associated with it, specifically ip address (the near address) and the point to point peer address (the far address). Since the point to point link will only work with the two addresses, the broadcast, and network addresses and the netmask do not have useful data or have flag values.

A final point tun interfaces can have mac addresses, they just don’t have default mac addresses.

Intel CPU, PROCESSOR_ARCHITECTURE = AMD64?

Yep, that’s right. The 64 bit extensions to the x86 architecture were invented and first implemented by AMD. Intel were laggards to the 64 bit party because they were hoping to transition away from x86 architecture and move us towards IA64. IA64 already existed in the form of the Itanium and Intel was hoping to transition towards that. Despite being a far better and more efficient architecture, lacking the inherent design flaws of x86, it suffered through lack of compatibility and it never took off except in the commercial space. AMD effectively forced Intel’s hand by introducing the Sledgehammer, which was effectively a 64bit chip based on the x86 architecture. Hence the name AMD64.